Dubai is one of seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates. The others are, Abu Dhabi (the capital), Sharjah, Fujeirah, Ras Al Khaima, Ajman and Um Al Quwain.
Each Emirate has its laws, and its ruler.
The UAE is a part of the GCC (Gulf Countries Coalition) you can think of this like the European Union, but the Arab version. The GCC also includes: Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Baharain and The Sultanate of Oman.
The official currency is the Emirati Dirham. One Canadian dollar is equivalent to roughly 2.74 AED.